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Monday, December 14, 2015

Colonies -polis....new words- settlers, pilgrims, our worlds

3 ingots
New words - 
the discovery of unruled lands, 
that is conquest, 
piece by piece
of the pacified worlds 
by US, the civilised ones.

By Theuspater,  Deuspiter, Jupiter ... 
By Jove, 
 ingot Romans believed entheusiastically.
 They believed in Gold, sorry, good
 And the sword. Peace upon you.

tercüman. 
cat: torsimany; cast: trujamán, truchimán (s. XIV y XV) o trujimán; pt: turgimão; it: turcimano; fr: trouchement, troucheman: Latin: dragoman): the entry comes from Arabic  turyuman and it was used in the  XIII century,  Las Siete Partidas (Partida II, título XXX) by the King Alfonso, as a  synonym of go-between and interpret. Probably derived from Turkish tercüman.


Plato was not willing to learn other languages. He considered the knowledge of languages slave wisdom. Contempt for the languages of the defeated was part of the arsenal of all conquerors.

1- On Cleopatra’s knowledge: “She spoke most languages, and there were but few of the foreign ambassadors whom she answered through an interpreter.”
2- The Normans despised the English language.

INTRO- Beatus Lullius (born in Majorca from a migrant Catalan family). Spreading the word of God.
Llull pressed for the study of Arabic and other then-insufficiently studied languages in Europe for the purpose of converting Muslims to Christianity. He travelled through Europe to meet with popes, kings, and princes, trying to establish special colleges to prepare future missionaries.
He returned in 1308, reporting that the conversion of Muslims should be achieved through prayer, not through military force. He finally achieved his goal of linguistic education at major universities in 1311 when  the Council of Vienne  ordered the creation of chairs of Hebrew, Arabic and Chaldean (Aramaic) at the universities of Bologna, Oxford, PAris and Salamanca as well as at the Papal Court.
Symbolically enacting colonial authority meant that ceremonies, actions, speeches, and records primarily targeted their fellow Europeans. It was above all their own countrymen and political leaders that colonists had to convince of the legitimacy of their actions, not indigenous people. (Seed, 1995: 11)


BIT 1. -Christophorus and the Jew
The European Discovery of the New World – In 1492, Christopher Columbus filled his frst two weeks of his journal with 75 entries with the words .... Lord? faith?, no: GOLD. His landing in the Bahamas changed the world forever. It helped establish trade routes between North America and Europe and ushered in a new age of voyage and discovery. Columbus brought Luis De Torres, born Yosef ben Levi Ha-Ivri, an interpreter who had converted in 1491 to avoid Isabel's expulsion edict, with him during his first voyage. Unfortunately, De Torres’s proficiency in Hebrew, Arabic, Aramaic, Portuguese, and Spanish was of little use in communicating with the natives.
Columbus hoped that the interpreter's skills would be useful in Asia because they would enable him to communicate with local Jewish traders.
After arriving at Cuba, which he supposed to be the Asian coast, Columbus sent de Torres and the sailor Rodrigo de Jerez for an expedition inland on November 2, 1492. Their task was to explore the country, to contact its ruler and to gather information about the Asian emperor of Kathay described by Marco Polo. The two men were received with great honours in a local village (our Indians), from where they returned four days later. They did report on the native custom of drying leaves, inserting them in cane pipes, burning them, and inhaling the smoke: the first European encounter with

BIT 2.  Indian subcontinent - Portuguese traders: 
Yusuf Adil Shah - Adil Khan - Hidalcão The story of Gaspar da Gama is a fascinating one. According to his own story, he was born in Poznan, Poland in 1444, but his family left due to religious prosecution. He became a Jewish traveller, made his way to Alexandria, was taken prisoner and sold as a slave in India, where he obtained his freedom and entered the service of the ruler of Goa. There, he took on the name Yusuf 'Adil. We do not know what his original name was.
When the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrived off Angediva in 1498, he was greeted in a friendly fashion by this flowing white long-bearded European on behalf of his master.

Startled, and believing he was probably a spy, Gaspar de Gama was immediately arrested and tortured. Realizing the man would be useful to him as he spoke various languages, including Hebrew, Arabic, Chaldean (Caldeu) and Italian mixed with Spanish.
Vasco da Gama self-righteously seized the Jew and compelled him to embrace Christianity under the baptismal name of Gaspar da Gama.

He was also known as Hidalcão, Gaspar d'Almeida and Gaspar de las Indias. As a Catholic, Gaspar da Gama became the pilot of Vasca da Gama's fleet. He sailed with several Portuguese fleets between Europe and India, including the fleet  that discovered Brazil in 1501.
Cantino planisphere -1502
 Former renegades and captives, natives and converted slaves, Jews and new Christians, adventurers and convicts formed an important contingent of a specific category inside the frontier society of the Portuguese empire: that of the interpreters or linguas. Furthermore, there were several technical problems. Individuals with proficiency in Eastern languages were rare in Portugal.
BIT 3.  "Welcome Englishmen" 1621  - English pilgrims

From the 1622 The booklet Mourt's Relation, where the narrator describes Samoset's visit thus:
Friday the 16th a fair warm day towards; this morning we determined to conclude of the military orders, which we had begun to consider of before but were interrupted by the savages, as we mentioned formerly; and whilst we were busied hereabout, we were interrupted again, for there presented himself a savage, which caused an alarm. He very boldly came all alone and along the houses straight to the rendezvous, where we intercepted him, not suffering him to go in, as undoubtedly he would, out of his boldness.

He saluted us in English, and bade us welcome, for he had learned some broken English among the Englishmen that came to fish at  Monchiggon, and knew by name the most of the captains, commanders, and masters that usually come.  
He was a man free in speech, so far as he could express his mind, and of a seemly carriage. We questioned him of many things; he was the first savage we could meet withal. He said he was not of these parts, but of Morattiggon, and one of the sagamores or lords thereof, and had been eight months in these parts, it lying hence a day's sail with a great wind, and five days by land. He discoursed of the whole country, and of every province, and of their sagamores, and their number of men, and strength.
In 1614, six years before the Pilgrims landed in modern-day Massachusetts, an Englishman named Thomas Hunt kidnapped Tisquantum from his village, Patuxet, which was part of a group of villages known as the Wampanoag confederation. (Europeans had started visiting the northeast of what is now the United States by the 1520s, and probably as early as the 1480s.)
Hunt took Tisquantum and around two dozen other kidnapped Wampanoag to Spain, where he tried to sell them into slavery.
"It caused quite a commotion when this guy showed up trying to sell these people," Mann said. "A bunch of people in the church said no way." 
Tisquantum escaped slavery -- with the help of Catholic friars, according to some accounts -- then somehow found his way to England. 

BIT 4.   The North and East in Outer Mongolia. Manchu-Russian neighbours -XVII century
Russia could not maintain the Eastern border. She was more interested in trade terms. 
The new rulers, the Manchu (Qing dinasty -1644-1912). Their government sent two letters to the Tsar (in Latin) in 1685 suggesting peace and demanding that Russian freebooters leave the Amur river. 
The language used was Latin, the translators being, for the Russians, a Pole named Andrei Bielobocki and for the Chinese the Jesuits Gerbillon and T Pereira. The differences between Manchu-Russian versions of the treaty, see V. S. Frank, "The Territorial Terms of the Sino-Russian Treaty of Nerchinsk, 1689". Then no need of Mandarin Chinese.... yet.

Not Chinese dynasties: Mongol (1212-1389). (Yuan  = Unity)

Manchu _ Qing - "Pure" 


Ok,,,,

you know the rest of the test.

in the XXI century, there is another race:

-1-  (2007 TV Mini- Canadian Series)
In the year 2030, the race to be the first to reach the Red Planet is on - and China is leading the way. China has stunned the world by leapfrogging over America's long-term plans and has landed a series of advanced rovers and robotic landers in their quest to make the most important discovery in history - extraterrestrial life on Mars.

-2-  What to do?  gold in mars

-3- Where?  Mount Olympus (27.000 height volcano)

-4- WHO?  Taikonauts

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